To achieve the greenhouse gas reduction targets formulated in the European Green Deal, energy- and resource-intensive industries such as the steel industry will have to adapt or convert their production. In the long term, new technologies are promising. However, carbon capture storage and utilization solutions could be considered as short-term retrofitting solutions for existing steelworks. In this context, this paper presents a first experimental demonstration of an approach to the utilization of process off-gases generated in a steelworks by producing methane and methanol in hydrogen-intensified syntheses. Specifically, the integration of two methane synthesis reactors and one methanol synthesis reactor into a steel plant is experimentally simulated. An innovative monitoring and control tool, namely, a dispatch controller, simulates the process off-gas production using a digital twin of the steel plant and optimizes its distribution to existing and new consumers. The operating states/modes of the three reactors resulting from the optimization problem to be solved by the dispatch controller are distributed in real time via an online OPC UA connection to the corresponding experimental plants or their operators and applied there in a decentralized manner. The live coupling test showed that operating values for the different systems can be distributed in parallel from the dispatch controller to the test rigs via the established communication structure without loss. The calculation of a suitable control strategy is performed with a time resolution of one minute, taking into account the three reactors and the relevant steelworks components. Two of each of the methane/methanol synthesis reactors were operated error-free at one time for 10 and 7 h, respectively, with datasets provided by the dispatch controller. All three reactor systems were able to react quickly and stably to dynamic changes in the load or feed gas composition. Consistently high conversions and yields were achieved with low by-product formation.

Valorizing Steelworks Gases by Coupling Novel Methane and Methanol Synthesis Reactors with an Economic Hybrid Model Predictive Controller

Dettori S.;Matino I.;Mocci C.;Colla V.;
2022

Abstract

To achieve the greenhouse gas reduction targets formulated in the European Green Deal, energy- and resource-intensive industries such as the steel industry will have to adapt or convert their production. In the long term, new technologies are promising. However, carbon capture storage and utilization solutions could be considered as short-term retrofitting solutions for existing steelworks. In this context, this paper presents a first experimental demonstration of an approach to the utilization of process off-gases generated in a steelworks by producing methane and methanol in hydrogen-intensified syntheses. Specifically, the integration of two methane synthesis reactors and one methanol synthesis reactor into a steel plant is experimentally simulated. An innovative monitoring and control tool, namely, a dispatch controller, simulates the process off-gas production using a digital twin of the steel plant and optimizes its distribution to existing and new consumers. The operating states/modes of the three reactors resulting from the optimization problem to be solved by the dispatch controller are distributed in real time via an online OPC UA connection to the corresponding experimental plants or their operators and applied there in a decentralized manner. The live coupling test showed that operating values for the different systems can be distributed in parallel from the dispatch controller to the test rigs via the established communication structure without loss. The calculation of a suitable control strategy is performed with a time resolution of one minute, taking into account the three reactors and the relevant steelworks components. Two of each of the methane/methanol synthesis reactors were operated error-free at one time for 10 and 7 h, respectively, with datasets provided by the dispatch controller. All three reactor systems were able to react quickly and stably to dynamic changes in the load or feed gas composition. Consistently high conversions and yields were achieved with low by-product formation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11382/548291
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