Background and objective: In patients with suspected Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), the severity of stenosis needs to be assessed for precise clinical management. An automatic deep learning-based algorithm to classify coronary stenosis lesions according to the Coronary Artery Disease Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) in multiplanar reconstruction images acquired with Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA) is proposed. Methods: In this retrospective study, 288 patients with suspected CAD who underwent CCTA scans were included. To model long-range semantic information, which is needed to identify and classify stenosis with challenging appearance, we adopted a token-mixer architecture (ConvMixer), which can learn structural relationship over the whole coronary artery. ConvMixer consists of a patch embedding layer followed by repeated convolutional blocks to enable the algorithm to learn long-range dependences between pixels. To visually assess ConvMixer performance, Gradient-Weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM) analysis was used. Results: Experimental results using 5-fold cross-validation showed that our ConvMixer can classify significant coronary artery stenosis (i.e., stenosis with luminal narrowing ≥50%) with accuracy and sensitivity of 87% and 90%, respectively. For CAD-RADS 0 vs. 1-2 vs. 3-4 vs. 5 classification, ConvMixer achieved accuracy and sensitivity of 72% and 75%, respectively. Additional experiments showed that ConvMixer achieved a better trade-off between performance and complexity compared to pyramid-shaped convolutional neural networks. Conclusions: Our algorithm might provide clinicians with decision support, potentially reducing the interobserver variability for coronary artery stenosis evaluation.

A token-mixer architecture for CAD-RADS classification of coronary stenosis on multiplanar reconstruction CT images

Moccia, Sara;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background and objective: In patients with suspected Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), the severity of stenosis needs to be assessed for precise clinical management. An automatic deep learning-based algorithm to classify coronary stenosis lesions according to the Coronary Artery Disease Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) in multiplanar reconstruction images acquired with Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA) is proposed. Methods: In this retrospective study, 288 patients with suspected CAD who underwent CCTA scans were included. To model long-range semantic information, which is needed to identify and classify stenosis with challenging appearance, we adopted a token-mixer architecture (ConvMixer), which can learn structural relationship over the whole coronary artery. ConvMixer consists of a patch embedding layer followed by repeated convolutional blocks to enable the algorithm to learn long-range dependences between pixels. To visually assess ConvMixer performance, Gradient-Weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM) analysis was used. Results: Experimental results using 5-fold cross-validation showed that our ConvMixer can classify significant coronary artery stenosis (i.e., stenosis with luminal narrowing ≥50%) with accuracy and sensitivity of 87% and 90%, respectively. For CAD-RADS 0 vs. 1-2 vs. 3-4 vs. 5 classification, ConvMixer achieved accuracy and sensitivity of 72% and 75%, respectively. Additional experiments showed that ConvMixer achieved a better trade-off between performance and complexity compared to pyramid-shaped convolutional neural networks. Conclusions: Our algorithm might provide clinicians with decision support, potentially reducing the interobserver variability for coronary artery stenosis evaluation.
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11382/553092
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