: Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric protein mainly synthesised by the liver and the choroid plexus whose function is to carry the thyroid hormone thyroxine and the retinol-binding protein bound to retinol in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. When the stability of the tetrameric structure is lost, it breaks down, paving the way for the aggregation of TTR monomers into insoluble fibrils leading to transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, a progressive disorder mainly affecting the heart and nervous system. Several TTR gene mutations have been characterised as destabilisers of TTR structure and are associated with hereditary forms of ATTR amyloidosis. The reason why also the wild-type TTR is intrinsically amyloidogenic in some subjects is largely unknown. The aim of the review is to give an overview of the TTR biological life cycle which is largely unknown. For this purpose, the current knowledge on TTR physiological metabolism, from its synthesis to its catabolism, is described. Furthermore, a large section of the review is dedicated to examining in depth the role of mutations and physiological ligands on the stability of TTR tetramers.

The Journey of Human Transthyretin: Synthesis, Structure Stability, and Catabolism

Panichella, Giorgia;Castiglione, Vincenzo;Aimo, Alberto;Emdin, Michele;Vergaro, Giuseppe;Franzini, Maria
2022-01-01

Abstract

: Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric protein mainly synthesised by the liver and the choroid plexus whose function is to carry the thyroid hormone thyroxine and the retinol-binding protein bound to retinol in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. When the stability of the tetrameric structure is lost, it breaks down, paving the way for the aggregation of TTR monomers into insoluble fibrils leading to transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, a progressive disorder mainly affecting the heart and nervous system. Several TTR gene mutations have been characterised as destabilisers of TTR structure and are associated with hereditary forms of ATTR amyloidosis. The reason why also the wild-type TTR is intrinsically amyloidogenic in some subjects is largely unknown. The aim of the review is to give an overview of the TTR biological life cycle which is largely unknown. For this purpose, the current knowledge on TTR physiological metabolism, from its synthesis to its catabolism, is described. Furthermore, a large section of the review is dedicated to examining in depth the role of mutations and physiological ligands on the stability of TTR tetramers.
2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11382/558815
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