Background: Novel treatments targeting in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and chemoreflex sensitivity (CRS) heart failure (HF) are grounded on small prognostic studies, partly performed in the pre-beta-blockade era. Objectives: This study assesses the clinical/prognostic significance of BRS and CRS in a large cohort of patients with chronic HF on modern treatments. Methods: Outpatients with chronic HF with either reduced (≤40%) or mildly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (41% to 49%) underwent BRS (SD method) and CRS to hypoxia and hypercapnia (rebreathing technique) assessment and were followed up for a composite endpoint of cardiac death, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock, or HF hospitalization. Results: A total of 425 patients were enrolled (65 ± 12 years of age, LVEF 32% [IQR: 25%-38%], 94% on beta blockers). Patients with decreased BRS (n = 96 of 267, 36%) had lower exercise tolerance and heart rate variability (P < 0.05), whereas those with increased CRS to both hypoxia and hypercapnia (n = 74 of 369, 20%) had higher plasma norepinephrine and central apneas across the 24-hour period (P < 0.01). During a median 50-month follow-up (IQR: 24-94 months), the primary endpoint occurred more often in patients with decreased BRS (log-rank: 11.64; P = 0.001), mainly for increased cardiac deaths/implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks, and in those with increased CRS (log-rank: 34.81; P < 0.001), mainly for increased HF hospitalizations. Patients with both abnormal BRS and CRS showed the worst outcome. Reduced BRS (HR: 2.76 [95% CI: 1.36-5.63]; P = 0.005) and increased CRS (HR: 2.91 [95% CI: 1.34-6.31]; P = 0.007) were independently associated with the primary outcome and increased risk stratification when added to standard HF prognosticators (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In subjects with HF on modern treatment, abnormal BRS and CRS are frequently observed. BRS and CRS elicit autonomic imbalance, exercise limitation, unstable ventilation, and predict adverse outcomes.

Chemoreflex and Baroreflex Sensitivity Hold a Strong Prognostic Value in Chronic Heart Failure

Giannoni, Alberto;Gentile, Francesco;Borrelli, Chiara;Sciarrone, Paolo;Spiesshoefer, Jens;Emdin, Michele;Passino, Claudio
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: Novel treatments targeting in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and chemoreflex sensitivity (CRS) heart failure (HF) are grounded on small prognostic studies, partly performed in the pre-beta-blockade era. Objectives: This study assesses the clinical/prognostic significance of BRS and CRS in a large cohort of patients with chronic HF on modern treatments. Methods: Outpatients with chronic HF with either reduced (≤40%) or mildly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (41% to 49%) underwent BRS (SD method) and CRS to hypoxia and hypercapnia (rebreathing technique) assessment and were followed up for a composite endpoint of cardiac death, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock, or HF hospitalization. Results: A total of 425 patients were enrolled (65 ± 12 years of age, LVEF 32% [IQR: 25%-38%], 94% on beta blockers). Patients with decreased BRS (n = 96 of 267, 36%) had lower exercise tolerance and heart rate variability (P < 0.05), whereas those with increased CRS to both hypoxia and hypercapnia (n = 74 of 369, 20%) had higher plasma norepinephrine and central apneas across the 24-hour period (P < 0.01). During a median 50-month follow-up (IQR: 24-94 months), the primary endpoint occurred more often in patients with decreased BRS (log-rank: 11.64; P = 0.001), mainly for increased cardiac deaths/implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks, and in those with increased CRS (log-rank: 34.81; P < 0.001), mainly for increased HF hospitalizations. Patients with both abnormal BRS and CRS showed the worst outcome. Reduced BRS (HR: 2.76 [95% CI: 1.36-5.63]; P = 0.005) and increased CRS (HR: 2.91 [95% CI: 1.34-6.31]; P = 0.007) were independently associated with the primary outcome and increased risk stratification when added to standard HF prognosticators (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In subjects with HF on modern treatment, abnormal BRS and CRS are frequently observed. BRS and CRS elicit autonomic imbalance, exercise limitation, unstable ventilation, and predict adverse outcomes.
2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11382/558871
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