Aims: Guidelines recommend target doses (TD) of heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) medications regardless of sex. Differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics may explain heterogeneity in treatment response, adverse reactions, and tolerability issues across sexes. The aim of this study was to explore sex-based differences in the association between TD achievement and mortality/morbidity in HFrEF. Methods and results: Patients with HFrEF and HF duration ≥6 months registered in the Swedish HF Registry between May 2000 and December 2020 (follow-up until December 2021) were analysed. Treatments of interest were renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASI) or angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI), and beta-blockers. Multivariable Cox regression models were performed to explore the risk of cardiovascular mortality or hospitalization for HF across dose categories in females versus males. A total of 17 912 patients were analysed (median age 77.0 years, interquartile range [IQR] 70.0-83.0), 29% were female. Over a median follow-up of 1.33 years (IQR 0.29-3.22), for RASI/ARNI there was no significant difference in outcome for females achieving 50-99% versus 100% of TD (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.83-1.03), whereas males showed a gradual lowering in risk together with the achievement of higher % of TD (p-interaction = 0.030). For beta-blockers the achievement of TD was associated with the lowest risk of outcome regardless of sex. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that females and males might differently benefit from the same dose of RASI/ARNI, and do represent a general call for randomized controlled trials to consider sex-specific up-titration schemes when testing HFrEF treatments in need of up-titration.

Sex differences in the prognostic role of achieving target doses of heart failure medications: Data from the Swedish Heart Failure Registry

Ferrari, Amerigo;Orsini, Nicola;Sinagra, Gianfranco;Savarese, Gianluigi
2024-01-01

Abstract

Aims: Guidelines recommend target doses (TD) of heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) medications regardless of sex. Differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics may explain heterogeneity in treatment response, adverse reactions, and tolerability issues across sexes. The aim of this study was to explore sex-based differences in the association between TD achievement and mortality/morbidity in HFrEF. Methods and results: Patients with HFrEF and HF duration ≥6 months registered in the Swedish HF Registry between May 2000 and December 2020 (follow-up until December 2021) were analysed. Treatments of interest were renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASI) or angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI), and beta-blockers. Multivariable Cox regression models were performed to explore the risk of cardiovascular mortality or hospitalization for HF across dose categories in females versus males. A total of 17 912 patients were analysed (median age 77.0 years, interquartile range [IQR] 70.0-83.0), 29% were female. Over a median follow-up of 1.33 years (IQR 0.29-3.22), for RASI/ARNI there was no significant difference in outcome for females achieving 50-99% versus 100% of TD (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.83-1.03), whereas males showed a gradual lowering in risk together with the achievement of higher % of TD (p-interaction = 0.030). For beta-blockers the achievement of TD was associated with the lowest risk of outcome regardless of sex. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that females and males might differently benefit from the same dose of RASI/ARNI, and do represent a general call for randomized controlled trials to consider sex-specific up-titration schemes when testing HFrEF treatments in need of up-titration.
2024
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11382/565872
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