: Parkinson's disease (PD) is known to affect the brain motor circuits involving the basal ganglia (BG) and to induce, among other signs, general slowness and paucity of movements. In upper limb movements PD patients show a systematic prolongation of movement duration, while maintaining a sufficient level of endpoint accuracy. PD appears to cause impairments not only in movement execution, but also in movement initiation and planning, as revealed by abnormal preparatory activity of motor-related brain areas. Grasping movement is affected as well, particularly in the coordination of the hand aperture with the transport phase. In the last fifty years, numerous behavioral studies attempted to clarify the mechanisms underlying these anomalies, speculating on the plausible role that the BG-thalamo-cortical circuitry may play in normal and pathological motor control. Still, many questions remain open, especially concerning the management of the speed-accuracy tradeoff and the online feedback control. In this review, we summarize the literature results on reaching and grasping in parkinsonian patients. We analyze the relevant hypotheses on the origins of dysfunction, by focusing on the motor control aspects involved in the different movement phases and the corresponding role played by the BG. We conclude with an insight into the innovative stimulation techniques and computational models recently proposed, which might be helpful in further clarifying the mechanisms through which PD affects reaching and grasping movements.

Reaching and Grasping Movements in Parkinson's Disease: A Review

Fasano, Alessio
;
Mazzoni, Alberto;Falotico, Egidio
2022

Abstract

: Parkinson's disease (PD) is known to affect the brain motor circuits involving the basal ganglia (BG) and to induce, among other signs, general slowness and paucity of movements. In upper limb movements PD patients show a systematic prolongation of movement duration, while maintaining a sufficient level of endpoint accuracy. PD appears to cause impairments not only in movement execution, but also in movement initiation and planning, as revealed by abnormal preparatory activity of motor-related brain areas. Grasping movement is affected as well, particularly in the coordination of the hand aperture with the transport phase. In the last fifty years, numerous behavioral studies attempted to clarify the mechanisms underlying these anomalies, speculating on the plausible role that the BG-thalamo-cortical circuitry may play in normal and pathological motor control. Still, many questions remain open, especially concerning the management of the speed-accuracy tradeoff and the online feedback control. In this review, we summarize the literature results on reaching and grasping in parkinsonian patients. We analyze the relevant hypotheses on the origins of dysfunction, by focusing on the motor control aspects involved in the different movement phases and the corresponding role played by the BG. We conclude with an insight into the innovative stimulation techniques and computational models recently proposed, which might be helpful in further clarifying the mechanisms through which PD affects reaching and grasping movements.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11382/543912
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