Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a highly heterogeneous diagnostic category, encompassing several endophenotypes and comorbidities, including sleep problems. However, no predictor of clinical long-term trajectories or comorbidity has yet been established. Sleep EEG has been proposed as a potential tool for evaluating the synaptic strength during development, as well as the cortical thickness, which is presumed to be altered in ADHD. We investigated whether the slope of the Slow Waves (SWs), a microstructural parameter of the sleep EEG, was a potential predictive parameter for psychiatric comorbidities and neuropsychological dimensions in ADHD. Methods: 70 children (58 m; 8.76 ± 2.77 y) with ADHD who underwent psychiatric and neurologic evaluations and a standard EEG recording during naps were investigated. After sleep EEG analysis, we grouped the extracted SWs in bins of equal amplitude and then measured the associations, through generalized linear regression, between their maximum downward slopes (MDS) and the individual scores obtained from clinical rating scales. Results: The presence of Multiple Anxiety Disorders was positively associated with MDS of medium amplitude SWs in temporo-posterior left areas. The Child Behavior Checklist scores showed negative associations in the same areas for small SWs. The presence of autistic traits was positively associated with MDS of high amplitude SWs in bilateral anterior and temporal left areas. The WISC-IV Processing Speed Index showed negative associations with MDS of small-to-medium SWs in anterior and temporal right areas, while positive associations in posterior and temporal left areas. Conclusions: Consistency of association clusters' localization on the scalp suggests that variations in the local MDS, revealing alterations of local synaptic strength and/or in daytime use of certain cortical circuits, could underlie specific neurodevelopmental trajectories resulting in different ADHD clinical phenotypes.

Maximum downward slope of sleep slow waves as a potential marker of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder clinical phenotypes

Fasano A.;Frumento P.;Mazzoni A.;Falotico E.;Faraguna U.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a highly heterogeneous diagnostic category, encompassing several endophenotypes and comorbidities, including sleep problems. However, no predictor of clinical long-term trajectories or comorbidity has yet been established. Sleep EEG has been proposed as a potential tool for evaluating the synaptic strength during development, as well as the cortical thickness, which is presumed to be altered in ADHD. We investigated whether the slope of the Slow Waves (SWs), a microstructural parameter of the sleep EEG, was a potential predictive parameter for psychiatric comorbidities and neuropsychological dimensions in ADHD. Methods: 70 children (58 m; 8.76 ± 2.77 y) with ADHD who underwent psychiatric and neurologic evaluations and a standard EEG recording during naps were investigated. After sleep EEG analysis, we grouped the extracted SWs in bins of equal amplitude and then measured the associations, through generalized linear regression, between their maximum downward slopes (MDS) and the individual scores obtained from clinical rating scales. Results: The presence of Multiple Anxiety Disorders was positively associated with MDS of medium amplitude SWs in temporo-posterior left areas. The Child Behavior Checklist scores showed negative associations in the same areas for small SWs. The presence of autistic traits was positively associated with MDS of high amplitude SWs in bilateral anterior and temporal left areas. The WISC-IV Processing Speed Index showed negative associations with MDS of small-to-medium SWs in anterior and temporal right areas, while positive associations in posterior and temporal left areas. Conclusions: Consistency of association clusters' localization on the scalp suggests that variations in the local MDS, revealing alterations of local synaptic strength and/or in daytime use of certain cortical circuits, could underlie specific neurodevelopmental trajectories resulting in different ADHD clinical phenotypes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11382/550893
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