Saccadic eye-movements play a crucial role in visuo-motor control by allowing rapid foveation onto new targets. However, the neural processes governing saccades adaptation are not fully understood. Saccades, due to the short-time of execution (20–100 ms) and the absence of sensory information for online feedback control, must be controlled in a ballistic manner. Incomplete measurements of the movement trajectory, such as the visual endpoint error, are supposedly used to form internal predictions about the movement kinematics resulting in predictive control. In order to characterize the synaptic and neural circuit mechanisms underlying predictive saccadic control, we have reconstructed the saccadic system in a digital controller embedding a spiking neural network of the cerebellum with spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) rules driving parallel fiber—Purkinje cell long-term potentiation and depression (LTP and LTD). This model implements a control policy based on a dual plasticity mechanism, resulting in the identification of the roles of LTP and LTD in regulating the overall quality of saccade kinematics: it turns out that LTD increases the accuracy by decreasing visual error and LTP increases the peak speed. The control policy also required cerebellar PCs to be divided into two subpopulations, characterized by burst or pause responses. To our knowledge, this is the first model that explains in mechanistic terms the visual error and peak speed regulation of ballistic eye movements in forward mode exploiting spike-timing to regulate firing in different populations of the neuronal network. This elementary model of saccades could be extended and applied to other more complex cases in which single jerks are concatenated to compose articulated and coordinated movements.

Dual STDP processes at Purkinje cells contribute to distinct improvements in accuracy and speed of saccadic eye movements

Fruzzetti L.;Kalidindi H. T.
;
Falotico E.
;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Saccadic eye-movements play a crucial role in visuo-motor control by allowing rapid foveation onto new targets. However, the neural processes governing saccades adaptation are not fully understood. Saccades, due to the short-time of execution (20–100 ms) and the absence of sensory information for online feedback control, must be controlled in a ballistic manner. Incomplete measurements of the movement trajectory, such as the visual endpoint error, are supposedly used to form internal predictions about the movement kinematics resulting in predictive control. In order to characterize the synaptic and neural circuit mechanisms underlying predictive saccadic control, we have reconstructed the saccadic system in a digital controller embedding a spiking neural network of the cerebellum with spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) rules driving parallel fiber—Purkinje cell long-term potentiation and depression (LTP and LTD). This model implements a control policy based on a dual plasticity mechanism, resulting in the identification of the roles of LTP and LTD in regulating the overall quality of saccade kinematics: it turns out that LTD increases the accuracy by decreasing visual error and LTP increases the peak speed. The control policy also required cerebellar PCs to be divided into two subpopulations, characterized by burst or pause responses. To our knowledge, this is the first model that explains in mechanistic terms the visual error and peak speed regulation of ballistic eye movements in forward mode exploiting spike-timing to regulate firing in different populations of the neuronal network. This elementary model of saccades could be extended and applied to other more complex cases in which single jerks are concatenated to compose articulated and coordinated movements.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11382/550912
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 1
social impact